A Review of the Education External Evaluation Services

Brian Donnelly Education Review Office

DELIVERING ACCOUNTABILITY AND PRESERVING AUTONOMY

In a contribution
to the accountability debate, Edwards (1991) concludes,

    "Endeavouring to achieve an appropriate balance between accountability and autonomy remains one of the most challenging and exciting policy and management tasks facing today's and tomorrow's educational leaders in their pursuit of the dual results of the best use of resources and enhanced teaching and learning."

The approach
in this review of evaluation services has been to follow the Picot model
of "Administering for Excellence" with the development of a model
for "Achieving Excellence" using the theme of self-management,
self-review and self-improvement

to deliver both accountability and accountability. A model has
been recommended which has the following components: strategic thinking,
strategic planning, statements of performance indicators, the Board
document assuring compliance, self-review, quantitative and qualitative
measurement, monitoring and analysis, Accountability Reviews and reporting.

The focus has been on quality learning and equity of opportunity for learning. Effective learning depends on setting high expectations and goals and determining how well these are being met. The demands on teachers are very great and it is unlikely they will abate. The community wants effective education and care provided by good schools and good centres. This review has taken the high ground and rejected as totally unacceptable the notion "that if you do not know where you are going any destination will do."

The model proposed is designed to:

  • Maintain the autonomy of institutions.
  • Enhance the delivery of education.
  • Improve accountability through internal mechanisms for planning against which audit can occur.
  • Better inform the Crown and, so, New Zealand, about the investment it makes in education to achieve social and economic progress.

Teachers are
the 'change agents' in the process of improving education outcomes.
Their professionalism must be acknowledged. They do make
a difference but that difference is currently variable. It can
be better! Schools and centres can be better places! Effectiveness
depends on commitment, a sense of purpose, liking and understanding
children and their different learning styles, setting clear goals and
expectations. Effectiveness is about caring enough to want to
make a difference.

Genuine involvement
in children's learning is very satisfying for professionals among
whom there is considerable goodwill to ensure quality education outcomes.
Capturing, appreciating and enhancing that goodwill is a responsibility
that should not be underestimated by decision makers, policy advisers,
Boards of Trustees, Principals and the teachers themselves.

The vision
in this review is to establish teaching as a research informed profession:
with teachers who are highly skilled, knowledgeable, valued and accountable;
led by principals who are committed to functioning as professional educational
leaders; and boards whose conviction embraces the concerns of today's
parents and tomorrow's citizens.

A spirit
of reform
has pervaded New Zealand for a decade. We believe this
review is a further contribution to the goal of quality education achieving
excellence.

Whaia te
iti kahurangi

Strive for
the Ultimate

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Administering
for Excellence: Effective Administration in Education
(1988) Report of the Taskforce to Review Education Administration
April

Braithwaite,
J and B Low (1988) "Determining School Effectiveness Through
Performance Indicators: Have We Got It Right?" Paper presented
to the Directors-General of Education Conference, Australia

Cabinet, Social
Equity Committee Minutes, SEQ (88) M 46/3 (1988)
13 December 1988

Education Act
(1989)

Education Review
Office: Departmental Forecast Report 1997-98

Education Review
Office, Post Election Briefing December 1996

Education Review
Office - Report to Parliament 1996

Education Review
Office - Report to Parliament 1997

Education Review
Office (1993) Handbook of Contractual Obligations and Undertakings
- Schools

Education Review
Office (1994) Self Review in Schools Number
3 Autumn

Education Review Office
(1994) Good New Zealand Schools Number 4 Winter

Edwards W (1991)
"Accountability and Autonomy: Dual Strands for the Administrator",
in Advancing Education: School Leadership in Action, (eds. Walker,
W, R Farquhar and M Hughes) Falmer

Gibbs, C
(1997) "Stacking the odds in favour of teachers"
Education Review 19 September

Harker, R and
R Nash (1996) "Academic Outcomes and School Effectiveness:
Type "A" and Type "B" Effects" New Zealand
Journal of Educational Studies Vol. 31, No. 2

Hopkins, D,
M Ainscow and M West (1994) School Improvement
in an Era of Change Cassell

Hargreaves
D.H. and D Hopkins (1991) The Empowered School: The Management
and Practice of Development Planning Cassell

Lange D
(1995) "Schools for Scandal" Listener
14 October

Martyn G.J.
(1996) "School Self-Review: Towards a Theory for Practice"
Unpublished Master of Educational Administration thesis,
Massey University

Ministry of
Education (1997) Governing and Managing New
Zealand Schools: A Guide for Boards of Trustees Learning
Media

Mortimore,
P (1997) "Can Effective Schools Compensate for Society?"
in Education: Culture, Economy and Society
(eds. A H Halsey, H Lauder, P Brown, A Stuart) Oxford University
Press

OECD
(1989) Schools and Quality: An International Report

OECD
(1995) Schools Under Scrutiny

OECD
(1995) Measuring the Quality of Schools

OECD
(1995) Performance Standards in Education: In Search
of Quality

OECD Conference
(1995) Changing Directions, Roles and Responsibilities - N.Z.
Country paper

Reynolds, D,
D Hopkins D. and L. Stoll L (1993) "Linking School Effectiveness Knowledge
and School Improvement Practice: Towards a Synergy" School Effectiveness
and Improvement, Vol. 4, No. 1

Schick A. (1996)
The Spirit of Reform: Managing the New Zealand State Sector in a
Time of Change, A report to the State Services Commission and the Treasury

Scriven, M
(1996) "Evaluation: The State of the Art"
Paper supplied by Education Review Office September

Southworth
G. (1993) "School Leadership and School Development: Reflections from
Research" School Organisation, Vol. 13, No. 1

State Services
Commission (1995) Board of Trustees
Opinion Survey: Systematic and Management Issues
November

Stoll, Louise
and D Fink (1996) Changing our Schools
Open University Press

Thomas S, P
Simmons and P Mortimore (1995) "Determining
What "Adds Value" to Student Achievement"
Educational Leadership International March

Today's
Schools: A Review of the Education Reform Implementation Process
(1990) April

Tomorrow's
Schools: The Reform of Education Administration in New Zealand
(1988)

Wylie, Cathy
(1997) At the Centre of the Web: The Role of the New
Zealand Primary School Principal Within a Decentralised Education System
NZCER

Wylie, Cathy (1997) Self-Managing Schools Seven Years On; What Have We learnt? NZCER

APPENDIX 1: LIST OF WRITTEN SUBMISSIONS

Number Name Title Organisation Location
1 Ian Mitchell Principal Henderson High School AUCKLAND
2 Tony Gilbert Principal Tahuna Normal Intermediate
School
DUNEDIN
3 Warwick D May Principal Birdwood School AUCKLAND
4 Wayne Bainbridge Principal Matipo School AUCKLAND
5 Graham Butterworth   Applied Historians WELLINGTON
6 Lester Flockton Co-Director Educational Assessment Research
Unit, University of Otago
DUNEDIN
7 Robin McConnell Senior Lecturer Dept. of Management Systems,
Massey University
AUCKLAND
8 J G Owens Secretary Wanganui Principals Association WANGANUI
9 Warwick Blight     NORTHLAND
10 Patrick Lynch Executive Director Association of Proprietors
of Integrated Schools
WELLINGTON
11 Belinda Stankovich Chairperson Board of Trustees, Matipo
School
AUCKLAND
12 Ken Wijiam Principal Te Atatu Intermediate School AUCKLAND
13 N S Grey     GISBORNE
14 Yvonne McDonald Chairperson Southland Federation PTA SOUTHLAND
15 Alan Oliver Chairperson Board of Trustees, Ohaeawai
School
NORTHLAND
16 Pat Gallagher Principal Carterton School WAIRARAPA
17 John Mills      
18 Laurie Thew Principal Manurewa Central School AUCKLAND
19 C Ken McKinnin Principal Tawhero School WANGANUI
20 Brian Pratley Principal Waimea Intermediate School NELSON
21 D W Martim Principal The Taieri High School DUNEDIN
22 Kevin Holder Principal Birchwood School NELSON
23 Sheryl Drayton Principal Wanganui East School WANGANUI
24 K F Williamson   Clifton Terrace School NELSON
25   Board of Trustees Wanganui City College WANGANUI
26   Board of Trustees Palmerston North Girls High
School
PALMERSTON NORTH
27 B R Wakefield Primary School Dep. Principal   AUCKLAND
28 Karen Hurst   Dunedin College of Education DUNEDIN
29 Mark Scown Principal Maunu Primary School NORTHLAND
30 Denis Buckland   Morewa School AUCKLAND
31 G E Bowden Science Advisor Nelson Education Centre NELSON
32 John McGovern   Special Education Service  
33 Lynley Henderson Professional Services Manager Southland Kindergarten Assoc.
Inc.
SOUTHLAND
34   Senior Staff Te Mata School HAVELOCK NORTH
35 Garry Weeds Principal Melville Intermediate School HAMILTON
36     Gisborne Community Child Care
and Education Centre
 

Number Name Title Organisation Location
37 Kathryn Love Secretary Board of Trustees, Tiritea
School
PALMERSTON NORTH
38 W J Cowan     DUNEDIN
39 Craig Smith National Director Christian Home Schoolers of
Australisia
PALMERSTON NORTH
40 Martin Thomas Education Manager Tainui Maaori Trust Board WAIKATO
41 Carol M Brown     HAMILTON
42 Anna Brooker Chairperson Board of Trustees, Glendowie
College
AUCKLAND
43 Christine Nydam School Trustee Cashmere High School CHRISTCHURCH
44 Mike Shennen Principal Mt. Maunganui Primary School TAURANGA
45 John Tyrrell   Wakanui School CANTERBURY
46 Denise Walmsley     AUCKLAND
47 Julie Christopher Secretary Board of Trustees, Kihikihi
School
KIHIKIHI
48     Canterbury Christian Home
Educators
CANTERBURY
49     Te Pohue School HAWKES BAY
50 Barbara Robinson Secretary Board of Trustees, Te Puna
School
TAURANGA
51 Maureen Wylie Principal Port Molyneux School SOUTH OTAGO
52   The Staff Tui Glen Primary School WELLINGTON
53 Pamela Halls Commissioner Waikokowai School WAIKATO
54 Murray Thompson Principal Mataura School SOUTHLAND
55 L J Anderson   Gonville School WANGANUI
56 Jan Kerr Executive Director Independent Schools Council WELLINGTON
57 M J Penman Principal Central School NEW PLYMOUTH
58   The Staff Waipahi School OTAGO
59 Howard Fowler Secretary Board of Trustees, Isla Bank
School
SOUTHLAND
60 Ron Prestage   Enner Glynn School NELSON
61 Murray Wratt Principal Opakeke School AUCKLAND
62 Tony Rhodes President NZ Free Kindergartens Associations
Inc.
WELLINGTON
63 Jane Lindsay Chairperson Board of Trustees, Drummond
Primary School
SOUTHLAND
64     Port Chalmers School DUNEDIN
65 Kevin Jephson Principal Dalefield Primary School WAIRARAPA
66     Ruapotaka School AUCKLAND
67     Carew School CANTERBURY
68 Carol Lindale Principal Ngarua School WAITOA
69 Brian Jakes Principal Allandale School WHAKATANE
70     Selwyn Street Kindergarten CHRISTCHURCH
71     Woodlands School OPOTIKI
72     Witherlea School BLENHEIM
73 D Jennings   Windy Ridge School AUCKLAND
74   The Staff Mangere East Primary School AUCKLAND
75   The Staff Pleasant Point Primary School TIMARU
76 Chris Morris Principal Otonga School WELLINGTON

Number Name Title Organisation Location
77 T J Dunleavy Trustee Hato Petera College AUCKLAND
78 Junior Syndicate Ngaio School WELLINGTON
79 P Whelan Principal Tangiteroria School AUCKLAND
80 The Staff Ohope Beach School WHAKATANE
81 Rotary Park School DUNEDIN
82 Rowley School CHRISTCHURCH
83 Family Link Childcare
Centre
NORTHLAND
84 The Staff Kamo Primary School NORTHLAND
85 Dr. Richard Benton Senior Research
Fellow
Centre for Maaori
Studies & Research, University of Waikato
HAMILTON
86 Jane Couch NZ Family Day
Care Association
WELLINGTON
87 Rox Carlsen School Trustee Board of Trustees
Wainuiora School
WAIRARAPA
88 Management Team New Windsor School AUCKLAND
89 Brent Ward
90 Brenda Ainsworth Chairperson Board of Trustees
Wainui School
AUCKLAND
91 Kelvyn Smythe Kelvyn Smyth Developmental
Publications Ltd.
HAMILTON
92 Lois Robertson National Secretary National Council
of Women of NZ
WELLINGTON
93 John McGowan Principal Campbells Bay
School
AUCKLAND
94 John Old Principal Greenmeadows Intermediate
School
AUCKLAND
95 Rose Cole Chief Executive Te Tari Puna Ora
O Aotearoa /NZ Childcare Association
WELLINGTON
96 S A Bindon Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Bayview School
AUCKLAND
97 Judith Duncan Lecturer Education Dept.,
University of Otago
DUNEDIN
98 Mrs Thomson AUCKLAND
99 Brother David
McDonald
Principal Hato Petera College AUCKLAND
100 Brother Nevil
Bingley
Marist Brothers
Formation Centre
AUCKLAND
101 Diane Cade Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Bluff School
SOUTHLAND
102 Errol Stapleton Principal Levin North School LEVIN
103 Mark Farnsworth Farnsworth Management
Services
NORTHLAND
104 Graham Nuthall Professor of Education Education Dept,
University of Canterbury
CHRISTCHURCH
105 Patricia Chapman Chairperson Wellington Wairarapa
School Trustees Assn. Inc.
WELLINGTON
106 Rebecca Power
& Anne Burkinshaw
WELLINGTON
107 Barbara E Smith Chairperson Manawatu Home
Educators Inc.
PALMERSTON NORTH
108 Ross Waugh TIMARU
109 Nola Hambleton President NZ Principals
Federation
WELLINGTON
110 Phil O'Reilly Secretary Commonwealth Press
Union (NZ Society)
WELLINGTON
111 Janet Kelly President NZ School Trustees
Assoc.
WELLINGTON
112 Roy Gillions Principal Lawrence Area
School
OTAGO
113 School Syndicate Nelson Central
School
NELSON
Number Name Title Organisation Location
114 Staff Members Nelson Central
School
NELSON
115 Board of Trustees,
High Street School
DUNEDIN
116 Robyn Nicholas Director Child & Family
Services, Barnardos
WELLINGTON
117 Staff Members Puni School AUCKLAND
118 Trucia Blarchford
et al
Professional Support
Team
Canterbury Westland
Free Kindergarten Assoc.
CHRISTCHURCH
119 C R Todd Secretary Board of Trustees,
Waimauku School
AUCKLAND
120 Anonymous-name
withheld on request
121 R E Forman Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Paraparaumu Beach School
WELLINGTON
122 St Marys Primary
School
123 Derek de Lisle Chairman Board of Trustees,
Haitaitai School
WELLINGTON
124 Mark Chapman Finance Convenor Board of Trustees,
Gisborne Girls High School
GISBORNE
125 Otahuhu Branch
of NZEI
AUCKLAND
126 Martin Matthews Asst. Auditor-General Office of the
Controller and Auditor-General
WELLINGTON
127 Murray Oats Principal Mosgiel West School DUNEDIN
128 Ann Rutherford School Advisor Southland Campus,
Dunedin College of Education
SOUTHLAND
129 The Staff Manawaru School WAIKATO
130 J G Shearer Principal St Josephs School AUCKLAND
131 Andy Larson Secretary Otago Primary
Principals Association
OTAGO
132 Terry Crooks Educational Assessment
Research Unit, University of Otago
DUNEDIN
133 The Staff St Andrews School TIMARU
134 Keriana Tawhiwhirangi
et al
Hikurangi Ki Te
Tairawhiti Aronui Tomua, Turanga Aronui Tomua, Te Kura A Rohe A Uawa
Kaiako Me Nga Mauta, Te Kura Kaupapa Maori O Waipiro Bay-Kaiako, Te
Kura O Manutuke-Kaiako, Resource Teacher Of Maori, Te Puia School
135 Caryl-Louise Robinson Chief Executive Early Childhood
Development Unit
WELLINGTON
136 Ron Angel Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Wairakei Primary School
CHRISTCHURCH
137 Linda Armstrong Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Ashburton College
CANTERBURY
138 Sheena Tyrrell Secretary Board of Trustees,
Becks School
CANTERBURY
139 Te Whanau Tahi
School
CHRISTCHURCH
140 Wendy Lee Executive Member World Organisation
for Early Childhood Education, OMEP Aotearoa/NZ
AUCKLAND
141 Lindsay Robertson Principal Geraldine Primary
School
OTAGO
142 Michael Absolum Psychologist AGM Associates,
Quality Management Services
AUCKLAND
Number Name Title Organisation Location
143 A Reilly Executive Officer Board of Trustees,
Temuka Primary School
TIMARU
144 Barbara Birt Secretary Board of Trustees,
Te Huruhi School
AUCKLAND
145 The Staff Linwood Avenue
School
CHRISTCHURCH
146 Trustees Board of Trustees,
St Patricks School Napier
HAWKES BAY
147 Board of Trustees,
St Thomas's School
SOUTHLAND
148 Greenpark Primary
School
TAURANGA
149 Joanne Upton Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Woodlands Park Primary School
AUCKLAND
150 Greg Healy Principal McKenzie Residential
School
CHRISTCHURCH
151 Diane Tolley Principal Kaikoura Primary
School
KAIKOURA
152 Owen Hughes Policy Researcher Disabled Persons
Assembly (NZ) Ltd.
WELLINGTON
153 Christina Cowand WHSA Co-ordinator Wellington Home
Schoolers Assn.
WELLINGTON
154 F Lightbody Principal Hukerenui Primary
School
AUCKLAND
155 The Staff David Street School WAIKATO
156 Dave Colling Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Ohau School
LEVIN
157 Harvey McQueen Executive Director NZ Council for
Teacher Education
WELLINGTON
158 Janice Chandler Assistant Principal Marshall Laing
Primary School, Mt Roskill
AUCKLAND
159 Gail Powell et
al
Clevedon Country
Home Educators
AUCKLAND
160 Jacqui Clayton
161 Board of Trustees,
Mangawhai Beach School
NORTHLAND
162 The Staff Roydvale Primary
School
CHRISTCHURCH
163 Bernard Gadd AUCKLAND
164 John Uden Principal Patea Primary
School
WANGANUI
165 The Staff St Patricks Catholic
Schook Taupo
TAUPO
166 The Staff Rosebank School AUCKLAND
167 Sheila Durkin
et al
The Staff Taupaki Primary
School
AUCKLAND
168 R Rands Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Hammersley Park School
CHRISTCHURCH
169 Hoon Hay School CHRISTCHURCH
170 Anne Wright Board of Trustees,
Patearoa School
OTAGO
171 Mark Thompson Principal Kaharoa School ROTORUA
172 Ernette Hayes Secretary Board of Trustees,
Kaeo Primary School
NORTHLAND
173 Jennifer Dagg Principal Board of Trustees,
Te Ranga School
WAIKATO
174 Cynthia Manion
et al
The Staff Wickham Private
School Ltd.
TAURANGA
175 Tinwald School CANTERBURY
176 The Staff St Josephs School,
Port Chalmers
DUNEDIN
177 Alan Winward AA Winward &
Associated Ltd.
NELSON
178 Mike Meyrick Trustee Board of Trustees,
St Anthony's School, Huntly
WAIKATO
Number Name Title Organisation Location
179 Keith Bishop AUCKLAND
180 Grant Lane Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Whangaroa College
NORTHLAND
181 M A Brown Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Kiwitea School
FIELDING
182 Frank Fillary Principal Kowhai Special
School
HAWKES BAY
183 Cliff Stearn Principal Board of Trustees,
Methven Primary School
CANTERBURY
184 Mr J Turner TAURANGA
185 M & A Redpath OPOTIKI
186 Tina Besley Head of Dept,
Guidance
Rutherford High
School
AUCKLAND
187 The Staff Cashmere Ave School WELLINGTON
188 The Staff Chelsea Primary
School
AUCKLAND
189 The Staff Waimataitai School TIMARU
190 C R Lewos
191 Debbie Shepherd President Ruahine Kindergarten
Association Inc.
PALMERSTON NORTH
192 The Staff Upper Atiamuri
School
ROTORUA
193 Jill Florrell Enfield School OAMARU
194 Ms Robbie Burke President NZ Playcentre
Federation Inc.
CHRISTCHURCH
195 Iritana Tawhiwhirangi Chief Executive Te Kohanga Reo
National Trust Board
WELLINGTON
196 Jan Hill &
Kay Hawk
Education Research
and Development Centre, Massey University
AUCKLAND
197 Rhona Thorpe CHRISTCHURCH
198 Pene Brown Chairperson Board of Trustees,
Gisborne Intermediate School
GISBORNE
199 Peter Allen Chairperson Teaching Council
of Aotearoa New Zealand
WANGANUI
200 Derek Chapman President Secondary Principals
Association of NZ
CHRISTCHURCH
201 Gary Hawke Chairman Advisory Council
on Quality in Education
WELLINGTON
202 Kevin Bunker General Secretary Post Primary Teachers
Association
WELLINGTON
203 Peter Simpson Chairperson NZEI Te Riu Roa
Principals Council
WELLINGTON
204 Joanna Beresford National Secretary NZEI WELLINGTON
205 G Arch
206 Judith Aitken Chief Review Officer Education Review
Office
WELLINGTON
207 Tony Riordan Principal Hilltop School TAUPO
208 A J Vestor Principal Edgewater College AUCKLAND
209 Don Murray Mathematics Advisor Nelson Education
Centre
NELSON
210 M R Edlin Principal Timaru West School TIMARU
211 A C K Munro Secretary Federation of
Rudolf Steiner Waldorf Schools in NZ Inc.
HAWKES BAY
212 The Staff Lyall Bay School WELLINGTON
213 Susan B Webb President NZ Association
of Counsellors
HAMILTON
214 Stephen Dawson Principal Te Kura O Hata
Maria
NORTHLAND
215 Sidney Neale Secretary Otara Principals'
Association
AUCKLAND