The Report of the E-Learning Advisory Group March 2002 14/14

Steve Maharey Associate Minister of Education (Tertiary Education)

The Report of the E-Learning Advisory Group March 2002 14/14

Appendix 1

Appendix 1: E-Learning Developments in New Zealand Tertiary Education

Massey University

Massey University has
approached the challenge of e-learning from its experience as a 'dual-mode'
institution offering its degrees and diplomas both through face-to-face study on
its three campuses and through its large extramural (distance education)
programme. Massey wants teaching staff to retain the central role of programme
design, development, delivery and assessment in their use of the e-learning
mode. Massey also wants to employ e-learning to support and transform all its
study modes.

Massey's vision for e-learning is to use the medium to develop learning
communities among students and teachers. To support this vision, Massey is
challenging every college to plan their development of e-learning in a phased
way, to commit to providing e-learning support for all off-campus programmes
within the next three years, and to use the medium to support campusbased study
wherever appropriate. Massey has adopted a standard development platform (WebCT)
and is providing a range of central infrastructure and support services. The
central role in planning, developing and delivering e-learning programmes will
continue to rest with colleges and academic teams.

A good example of this strategy in action is the Early Delivery Option (EDO)
of the Bachelor of Teaching degree. First introduced four years ago, the EDO
option is supported by a combination of print-based study materials, and
web-based communications activities. These students, scattered throughout New
Zealand, interact with each other in both structured and unstructured
communication exercises several times each week. They only ever meet as a group
when they graduate, but their sense of group commitment is as strong as if they
were attending classes together each day. The programme does not transmit a lot
of sophisticated multimedia material on-line, and the print medium is generally
better suited for the one-way transmission of text material. Students and staff
use the web where it counts, for establishing learning communities.

In 2001 some 300 courses at Massey were webdelivered or web-supported, and
over 15,000 students were registered users of WebCT.

The Open Polytechnic of New

E-learning is part of the Polytechnic's mission and vision to
be first choice in open learning. The Polytechnic aims to be a dual mode
provider offering both print-based and on-line course programmes. The Open
Polytechnic aims to build organisational competence (people, systems,
courses/programmes and culture) in e-learning to achieve its vision to support
students to study wherever and whenever they choose to study, and to provide a
total student learning experience along the value chain of its delivery system,
from pre-enrolment, enrolment, to teaching and assessments.

Just as print-based teaching is underpinned by an effective and efficient
seamless infrastructure that can support a large volume of students who study at
their own place and pace, the strategy adopted for e-learning development is
also based on the same philosophy of supporting a customised mass market. It
also recognises the importance of the development of the international market,
to provide financial resources to sustain the domestic market, and to further
build The Open Polytechnic's credibility in open learning globally. To support
this vision The Open Polytechnic:

  • aims to progressively develop a range of e-learning support for all
    print-based courses;
  • aims to progressively develop and deliver Bachelor of Business and Batchelor
    of Applied Science on-line fully web-based courses;
  • adopted a standard Blackboard platform in the delivery of fully web based
  • aims to provide an integrated seamless platform for all e-learning services;
  • aims to integrate the development of people, competencies and culture to
    develop on-line courses and to support students on-line as part of an integrated
    human resource strategy;
  • adopted a systemic approach to evaluating student and staff feedback for
    ongoing improvement.

and staff feedback for ongoing improvement. A good example of an activity is
the progressive development and delivery of our Bachelor of Business and Applied
Science on-line. Commenced in late 2000, to date there are around 19 courses
on-line and available for domestic and international students. This development
is managed as a strategic project to ensure resources are available, and to
facilitate the establishment of organisational systems, policies and processes
for on-line delivery as part of core business. Currently the Open Polytechnic
has 226 courses, which are web supported. In total these courses attract 21,114

Universal College of Learning

Over the last
decade, UCOL has been sponsoring the development of flexible delivery across the
entire portfolio of its programmes. Since 1997, e-learning has been an important
part of this initiative and has been applied in a range of ways from on-line
support to a resource for use in face-to-face delivery. By blending the best of
face-to-face delivery with these information and communication tools, it aims to
build more effective learning opportunities for a wider range of students.

UCOL currently have approximately 30 staff actively involved in e-learning
across a range of programmes. It is planned that all major programmes will have
e-learning support sites by the beginning of the 2002 academic year. UCOL is
currently undertaking pilot programmes in Photography, Nursing, Information
Systems, Adult Education and Veterinary Nursing to learn more about the
production of re-usable learning objects, simulations and other e-learning
approaches. All these courses are a blend of classroom and on-line activity.

The focus of UCOL's e-learning strategy is to blend the best of classroom-led
and technology-mediated delivery. To support this, UCOL established an e-Campus
Initiative staffed by experienced staff drawn from a range of disciplines. With
it's TANZ partners, UCOL has adopted the Blackboard Learning Management System
as its prime e-learning platform, whilst continuing to monitor this
rapidly-developing marketplace. Reusability and sharing of e-learning resources
is seen as a critical factor for success in e-learning development. UCOL is
committed to the support of collaborative organisations such as TANZ and the

One example of this new strategy in action is an Advanced Nursing course
which uses the Blackboard system to provide a focal point for students and
staff. Students based across the region now collaborate on group assignments and
topic-centric discussions in preparation for their face-to-face sessions. In
this way students are better prepared for their classes and this adds value to
their time with the lecturers.

Waikato Institute of Technology

The Waikato
Institute of Technology's interest in flexible delivery of learning dates back
to the early 1990s with the development of distance education courses, the use
of video conferencing and mobile 'classrooms' .

In 2001 the Waikato Institute of Technology opened its Centre for Learning
Technologies (CLT) with staff and facilities to support a rapid expansion of the
e-learning study mode. This move followed a successful 36-month strategy to
develop the Institution's technical and staff capability to support on-line
learning and teaching. The Centre provides expert instructional design and
technical support for staff working on the design and delivery of mixed-mode
courses. A standard development platform (WebCT) is used. Project planning and
quality assurance monitoring are also provided by the Centre's staff, as is
institutional research activity into e-learning effectiveness. Such research
activity clusters together staff from Faculty and Corporate sections in pursuit
of a common research agenda. Library services and learning support services work
closely with the Centre to provide an integrated capability to support Faculty
development and industry clients.

In 1999, the Waikato Institute of Technology introduced the Graduate Diploma
of Information Technology in Education (GDITE). This programme provides the
opportunity for teachers to improve their understanding of how information and
communication technology can be integrated across the curriculum. GDITE students
are scattered in many different parts of New Zealand and learn by a mixture of
on-line and face-to-face options.

By October 2001, 100 courses at the Waikato Institute of Technology were
web-delivered or web-supported, over 1700 students were registered as WebCT
users and over 200 staff had been trained in the use of WebCT to course design
and student support.

Whitireia Polytechnic

Whitireia uses
e-learning for targeted programmes where it has real knowledge and expertise in
reaching and supporting traditionally under-represented groups in our
communities. For example, e-learning provides flexibility and on-going support
for second-chance learners, enhancing their on-campus learning experience.

To support this vision, every school at the polytechnic has a strategic
objective in e-learning that covers the continuum of on-line learning
enhancements for classroom-based courses, through to fully interactive web-based

Whitireia has developed a multi-disciplinary team approach to e-learning
design. With curriculum expertise from the school, the polytechnic provides a
team of people with instructional design, graphics and technical skills to
support each development. Three examples of activities that illustrate the
diversity of Whitireia's strategic approach are the Postgraduate Certificate in
Forensic Psychiatric Care, the NZ Diploma in Business and the Information
Literacy modules. The Postgraduate Certificate in Forensic Psychiatric Care is
delivered completely by distance learning with on-line and print-based materials
to support workplace training. This has been delivered for the past six years to
students in supervised clinical settings across New Zealand. The on-line
delivery ensures a cost-effective delivery of a quality programme in a
highly-specialised area of work.

For the NZ Diploma in Business, on-line materials enhance students' on-campus
learning in core papers as part of a standard programme.

A specialist Information Literacy module developed by the Library staff in
consultation with academic staff has been delivered in two schools and will be
available to all Whitireia students via the intranet in 2002. In 2001,
approximately 30 students enrolled in the two web-based e-learning programmes
that are available fully on-line. Approximately 200 students accessed the
growing range of web-based modules and a larger number again (300+) accessed
on-line materials, via the intranet, to support their learning.

Twenty-five academic staff have been actively involved with e-learning course
development and delivery activities and Whitireia has three centralised resource
staff supporting the developments.

Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of

In July 2001 the Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of
Technology (CPIT) established an e-learning and Web Support team. The role of
this team is to assist in the development of on-line programme proposals and
business cases and to then work with the CPIT Management Team in determining
on-line programme priorities. Once courses have been scoped in terms of such
things as timelines and resource demand and approved for development, the unit
then works with content developers and facilitators in the educational design,
web development and coaching tutor/facilitators in the delivery of courses.

The polytechnic's move into developing courses that will be delivered, all or
in part, using Internet-based technology is driven by several factors. Among the
most important of these factors is the change in the profile of students due to
such things as:

  • student loans and the need to work part-time to support their education
  • changes in work practices preventing some people accessing traditional
    classroom-centred education even on a part-time basis
  • the needs of adult learners wishing to upgrade their skills and
    qualifications while still in employment and who would otherwise not undertake
    tertiary education
  • people, outside the CPIT's immediate catchment, needing access to tertiary
    qualifications and skills
  • the ubiquity of Internet-based technology and the expectations it raises for
    anytime, anywhere access to information and knowledge. E-Learning is being
    developed in the following ways:
  • CPIT has invested in Blackboard, a Course Management System and is using
    this as the prime delivery platform for fully or partly on-line courses and
    course materials and resources for onsite students
  • e-learning and Web Support team established and resourced
  • contestable financial resources allocated for on-line course development
  • Strategic Development Funds earmarked for tutor relief to free tutors from
    normal workload to develop content and deliver courses
  • staff training in on-line learning and use of Blackboard CMS
  • 25 on-line projects currently in development
  • goal of 40 full or partly on-line courses by 2003.

There are
currently six courses being delivered fully on-line by CPIT and a further eight
courses that are part delivered on-line. 216 students are enrolled in online
courses and 25 tutors have course creation/facilitation accounts, however, some
of these are involved in course development.

One example is the Graduate Diploma in Technical Communication (GDTC). This
was developed several years ago in association with the University of Western
Sydney. From the beginning it was envisaged as an online delivered course. This
year, GDTC is being delivered using Blackboard and from a small student base in
the first couple of years, this course has caught a wave of rapidly-increasing
international demand and the student numbers have increased five-fold in the
last year.

Te Whare Wa-nanga o Waikato

The University of
Waikato has approached e-learning in an organic manner assisting staff and
students to adapt to the new medium and share best practice. Waikato established
its first formal web-based teaching in 1996. The first cohort of New Zealand
students to complete a full degree programme on the Web completed their degrees
in 1999. In 2001 more than 800 papers were e-supported or e-delivered with some
100 fully on-line. All 13,000 students are registered to use the on-line
environment and more than 5,000 ACTIVE on-line students. There are more than 100
academic staff teaching on-line.

The University of Waikato approach emphasises the individual and is based on
the development of a community of learners and teachers to distinguish it from
content-based deliverers of e-education. Waikato has focused on developing
cohesive curricula for teaching on-line so that students have a path to a
complete qualification. The University is also bringing together research
efforts relating to ICT and e-education so that they contribute to a coherent
overall strategy. A teaching support plan has been developed which includes a
mentoring programme, visitor and seminar programme and a web-based support
resource. Support includes raising staff awareness of the particular needs of
on-line students.

While the Waikato approach is organic and bottom-up, there is also a top-down
focus. E-education is one of the five key strategies of the university and
e-learning sections are required in all business plans. A multi-year investment
programme has been run to develop e-education throughout the Schools of Study.
This investment has included the establishment of the WICeD Team (Waikato
Innovation Centre for e-Education). This group includes 15 staff committed to
innovation, research and the development of e-education.

This long-term investment in support of e-education focused on research,
pedagogy and support of the teacher rather than content and the technology of
delivery has resulted in teaching staff accepting the imperatives of e-education
and has resulted in a rapid scaling up of e-education programmes. It is creating
a cultural change where e-education is seen as just one tool for teachers and is
resulting in high completion rates and acceptance by students.

Auckland University of Technology

established its first formal web-based course in 1997 in conjunction with its TV
and Open Learning activities. Due to the success of the course, which included
200 enrolments in its first semester, the institute continued to develop further
on-line courses. On-line courses are now components of AUT Graduate Diplomas and
Certificates. The Faculty of Health are currently completing a Master in Health
Science online, and the Faculty of Business supports all its teaching with
on-line resources.

To assist with the management of the resources and to create a user-friendly
environment for the students, AUT went on to develop its own learning platform
called LearnOn-line.

AUT recently completed an evaluation of e-learning platforms to take the
University into its next phase of development. The chosen platform is
Prometheus, which is a new product developed by George Washington University.

Teaching staff at AUT are supported by a Learning Technology Centre and by
ICT specialists within the larger faculties. The University is taking a
strategic approach to the use of the Internet for teaching and learning, and is
now ensuring that resources are made available to support new developments.

AUT is a member of the Global Universities Alliance. This alliance is made up
of nine universities who are pursuing new markets with on-line programmes.

Appendix 2: The E-Learning Questionnaire

E-Learning Questionnaire was distributed by the Ministry of Education on the
behalf of the E-Learning Advisory Group to public tertiary education
institutions (wananga, universities, colleges of education and polytechnics) in
order to obtain a synopsis of the e-learning activity in the tertiary sector.
The questionnaire focussed on the present and potential e-learning capacity of
individual institutions. For this report the results have been compiled in a
brief summary. There would be some advantage to be gained if this questionnaire
was to be repeated at a later date.

Thirty-three out of thirty-six institutions responded to the questionnaire.

Aoraki Polytechnic, Auckland College of Education,
Auckland University of Technology, Bay of Plenty Polytechnic, Christchurch
College of Education, Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Dunedin
College of Education, Eastern Institute of Technology, Lincoln University,
Manukau Institute of Technology, Massey University, Nelson Marlborough Institute
of Technology, Northland Polytechnic, Open Polytechnic of New Zealand, Otago
Polytechnic, Southern Institute of Technology, Tai Poutini Polytechnic,
Tairawhiti Polytechnic, Te Wananga O Aotearoa, Te Whare Wananga O Awanuiarangi,
Telford Rural Polytechnic, UNITEC Institute of Technology, Universal College of
Learning, University of Auckland, University of Canterbury, University of Otago,
University of Waikato, Victoria University of Wellington, Waikato Institute of
Technology, Wanganui Regional Community Polytechnic, Wellington College of
Education, Western Institute of Technology at Taranaki and Whitireia Community

Higher Level Synopsis

  • 74% of respondents have a strategy to develop e-learning capability;
  • 65% of respondents have a programme in place to develop on-line course
  • 68% of respondents have a designated person responsible for driving the
    e-learning strategy;
  • 77% of respondents have programmes to upgrade staff skills in IT literacy;
  • 63% of the respondents have programmes to upgrade staff skills in the area
    of providing online teaching and support for students;
  • 59% of respondents have a programme(s) to upgrade staff skills in the areas
    of development of on-line learning objects;
  • 69% of students have 24 hour access to their institution's e-learning site;
  • 45% of staff have 24 hour 7 day off-site access to their institution's
    computer system;
  • 41% of respondents have collaborative arrangements (concerning e-learning)
    with other providers nationally;
  • 39% of respondents have collaborative arrangements (concerning e-learning)
    with other providers internationally;
  • In general, institutions offered more papers or modules with courses
    nationally than internationally;
  • There are few full qualifications available to New Zealand and international
    students online; Of the 23 respondents who have a learning management system:
  • 91% of respondents provide an information service for prospective students;
  • 26% of respondents take enrolments on-line; and
  • 13% of respondents allow students to pay fees on-line. 76% of the
    respondents provide for on-line delivery of educational programmes. Some
    examples of the nature of these educational programmes are as follows:
  • selected courses within teacher training;
  • ICT supports classroom based programmes in a blended form;
  • Diploma, Bachelor and Masters degrees;
  • technical courses, for example carpentry;
  • Maori Language Immersion Teaching programme for adult learners;
  • Bachelor of Maori Education; and
  • Certificate in Grape and Wine

Respondents accessed advice on
developing their e-learning strategies and tools from: (Please note the
following are samples and are not in order of preference)

  • the experience of staff;
  • employing people with expertise in the field;
  • advice from domestic and overseas specialists;
  • site visits;
  • research;
  • consulted with partner or other institutions;
  • community networks; and
  • iwi links.

The main software packages the respondents used on-line

  • Learn OnLine;
  • PowerPoint;
  • Blackboard;
  • P2Pacademia;
  • WebCT;
  • ClassForum; and
  • customised web-based systems.

There was diversity among software
packages respondents used for developing course materials. Examples include:

  • Word;
  • PowerPoint;
  • FrontPage;
  • PhotoShop;
  • Acrobat;
  • Notepad;
  • Final Cut Pro;
  • WebCT;
  • HTML; and
  • custom made systems.

Appendix 3 Digital Copyright abridged from a paper by NZVCC

There are
two major elements emerging in the New Zealand context about copyright. The
first is the impact of the World Intellectual Property Organisation in the
digital environment. The second is the increasing awareness of intellectual
property developers of their legal and moral rights as they are affected by New
Zealand's employment laws. The importance of the first element is to bring New
Zealand, as a net importer of intellectual property, into new international
agreements in the legislative environment. The importance of the second is to
find solutions to issues about creating a climate that fosters the development
of intellectual property in a context balancing personal and institutional

International situation
The NZVCC fully supports the stated aims
of the Copyright Act 1994 and the discussion paper to ensure 'a balance' between
the interests of copyright owners and users which is conducive to the promotion
of an inclusive, innovative New Zealand economy. As educators, authors and
students, members of the university community value knowledge and share the
belief that all New Zealanders should benefit from the opportunities that a
knowledge society offers. This means that a commitment to ensuring equal access
to information and educational resources is even more significant as we enter
the digital age. The principle of balance must serve to safeguard the right of
all members of our society to be active lifelong learners.

In 1994, the balance that had existed between the rights of copyright owners
and users was substantially changed in favour of owners with the passing of the
present Copyright Act. The educational provisions in that legislation did not
meet the needs of tertiary institutions or the education sector in general. The
Copyright Act 1994 imposed significant new and costly compliance requirements
that frequently impede the implementation of best educational practice.

Overseas experience with digital copyright legislation shows tertiary
institutions are subject to an everincreasing financial and administrative
burden, whilst their rights and entitlements as educators are progressively

Tertiary institutions are particularly concerned that restrictive rights of
communication, if included in future legislation, will further shift the balance
towards the copyright owner.

A right of communication, if not contained within clear parameters, has the
potential to infringe upon the basic right to circulate and share knowledge for
the benefit of the wider community. The law of copyright, in seeking to protect
the economic interests of copyright owners, must not seek to control the
movement of information by restricting access to those with the ability to pay
for copyright materials. Just as we may browse in a library, lend a book to a
friend, or research privately, a technologically-neutral copyright scheme must
ensure that such basic rights are protected in the digital environment.

The encroachment of contract law into the field of copyright, particularly
the use of standard form 'shrink-wrap' or 'click-wrap' contracts, frequently
denies users the right to exercise their fair dealing rights or legitimately
carry out a permitted act. This development threatens to undermine any balance
achieved by carefully-drafted legislation and can render the most fundamental
public rights impotent.

Along with the rise of the digital age, there has been a paradigm shift in
the provision of education towards more flexible learning. Students' needs are
changing dramatically. In today's environment, where lifelong learning is
increasingly necessary for all, students must manage work, family, financial and
education commitments. Flexible learning is about meeting the needs of these
students, and about providing educational opportunities to those who previously
had no such opportunities. E-learning is a vital component of flexible learning,
and the development of a knowledge economy requires us to embrace the new
possibilities of digital technology and to facilitate flexible learning and
electronic resource systems through supportive legislation. For this reason,
education must be at the heart of far-sighted economic policy, and thus argues
for clear and explicit educational exemptions associated with any new digital
provisions in the legislation.

The role of contracts
Increasingly, digital works are sold or
licensed pursuant to standard form contracts that restrict the ways in which
they can be used. In this way, copyright owners use contract law to deny users
the right to exercise the fair dealing rights and other permitted acts provided
for in the Copyright Act. There is need for laws that render ineffective any
agreement that purports to exclude or limit the exercise of any of the permitted
acts expressly provided for in the Copyright Act.

International Issues
As a net importer of copyright works, New
Zealand must provide a level of protection to copyright that is commensurate
with its trading partners, and must demonstrate good faith to the international
community by supporting its commitments with action. Acceding to the World
Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) treaties will help New Zealand to do
this. However, also as a net importer, when New Zealand accedes to international
copyright agreements it risks restricting local access to copyright only to the
benefit of offshore interests.

Internationally, states have found that digital copyright reforms have tipped
the balance in favour of copyright owners. This is not a necessary consequence
of reforming copyright law to adhere to the WIPO Internet treaties. The WIPO
treaties provide a minimum standard of protection and give individual countries
enough discretion to interpret the treaties in a manner that allows individual
countries to strike the necessary balance between copyright owners and users.
There is a danger, however, that offshore interests or strong lobby groups'
interpretations of the treaties will endanger New Zealand's ability to strike a
balance that is appropriate to our domestic needs.

As stated in paragraph above, acceding to the WIPO treaties would be
beneficial, but the treaties must be implemented only in a way that serves New
Zealand's interests. Overseas experience with reform of copyright law to
accommodate digital technology is that the balance tends to be shifted in favour
of copyright owners and away from copyright users. This is apparent in the US
Digital Millennium Copyright Act 1998, the EU Draft Directive on Harmonisation
of Copyright and the Australian Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Act 2000. A
shift in balance towards owner rights is not in New Zealand's interest,
especially if it wishes to sustain a 'knowledge economy'.